||운동후 쿨링다운 반드시 해야하나?
|Do We Have to Cool Down After Exercise?
By GRETCHEN REYNOLDS
April 24, 2013, 12:01 am 119 Comments
훈련후 쿨링다운(마무리훈련)을 빼먹기도 합니까? 빼먹으면 웬지 죄책감이 들기도 하는지요? 작은 인원이지만 고무적인 결과를 보여주는 한 연구에 따르면 빼먹으도 크게 문제될 게 없다고 한다.
우리들 대부분은 초등학교 체육시간에서 우리몸은 훈련이나 시합후에 몸을 식혀주는 쿨링다운(마무리운동)을 필요로 한다고 배웠다. 코치들은 조깅의 속도를 줄이거나 훈련의 강도를 낮추고 스트레칭 등으로 몸을 풀어줌으로써 근육통을 예방하고 유연성을 향상하고 또 생리학적으로 회복시간을 빨리 할 수 있다고 가르치고 있다. 그래서 쿨다운을 하지 않았을 때보다 다음날 신체적으로 경기력을 더 잘 발휘할 수 있게 해준다는 것이다.
Do you often, if guiltily, skip cooling down after exercise? A small but soothing body of new research suggests that you aren’t missing out on much.
Most of us were taught in elementary school gym classes that the body requires a formal period of cooling down after a workout or competition. Instructors told us that by slowing to a jog or otherwise lessening the intensity of the workout, followed by stretching or otherwise transitioning out of physical activity, we would prevent muscle soreness, improve limberness and speed physiological recovery. All of this would allow us to perform better physically the next day than if we hadn’t cooled down.
But under scientific scrutiny, none of those beliefs stand up well.
하지만 과학적인 검증결과 이 어느 것도 확신(검증)을 주지 못하고 있다.
작년에 발간된 인간운동학 저널(The Journal of Human Kinetics)에 게재된 대표적인 연구에서 활동적인 36명의 성인들에게 바벨을 든 채로 실시하는 힘든 런지를 실시토록 했으며 대부분 이런 운동은 운동하지 않은 사람에게 다음날 심한 통증을 유발하게 되어 있다. 한 그룹은 20분동안 매우 부드러운 페이스로 실내자전거를 타게 함으로써 사전에 몸을 데웠고 다른 그룹은 이런 워밍업없이 시작했지만 끝난 후 같은 20분동안 자전거를 탄 후 마무리훈련(쿨링다운)을 실시했다. 그리고 나머지는 워밍업이나 쿨링다운없이 그냥 런지를 실시했다.
다음날 이들 모두 동통역치(pain threshold, 고통을 느끼는 한계점) 테스트를 받았는데 이는 불편을 느낄때까지 근육을 누르는 형식이다. 운동전 워밍업을 한 집단이 가장 높은 동통역치를 보였는데 이는 이는 근육이 상대적으로 통증을 느끼지 않는다는 것을 의미한다.
한편 마무리운동(쿨다운)을 한 사람들은 훨씬 낮은 동통역치를 가졌는데 이는 그들의 근육이 손상되었다는 것을 말한다. 실제 쿨다운을 한 그룹들의 동통역치는 운동전후 아무것도 하지 않은 대조군(control group)과 같았다. 쿨다운을 한 그룹은 통증완화라는 측면에서 아무런 효과가 없었다.
In a representative study published last year in The Journal of Human Kinetics, a group of 36 active adults undertook a strenuous, one-time program of forward lunges while holding barbells, an exercise almost guaranteed to make untrained people extremely sore the next day. Some of the volunteers warmed up beforehand by pedaling a stationary bicycle at a very gentle pace for 20 minutes. Others didn’t warm up but cooled down after the exercise with the same 20 minutes of easy cycling. The rest just lunged, neither warming up nor cooling down.
The next day, all of the volunteers submitted to a pain threshold test, in which their muscles were prodded until they reported discomfort. The volunteers who’d warmed up before exercising had the highest pain threshold, meaning their muscles were relatively pain-free.
Those who’d cooled down, on the other hand, had a much lower pain threshold; their muscles hurt. The cool-down group’s pain threshold was, in fact, the same as among the control group. Cooling down had bought the exercisers nothing in terms of pain relief.
Similarly, in two other studies published last year, one in The Journal of Human Kinetics and the other in The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, professional soccer players in Spain underwent a series of physical tests to benchmark their vertical leap, sprinting speed, agility and leg muscle flexibility, and then completed a normal soccer practice. Afterward, some of the players simply stopped exercising and sat quietly on a bench for 20 minutes, while others formally cooled down with 12 minutes of jogging and 8 minutes of stretching.
The next day, the players repeated the physical tests and also told the scientists how sore their legs felt, an assessment with which professional athletes tend to be familiar.
It turned out that there were almost no differences between the two groups of players. The cool-down group could, on average, leap a little higher the next day than those who’d sat around for 20 minutes, but the difference was slight. And on all of the other measures of performance, flexibility and muscle soreness, the groups were the same.
The available data “quite strongly suggest a cool-down does not reduce postexercise soreness,” says Rob Herbert, a senior research fellow at Neuroscience Research Australia and senior author of what is probably the foundational study of cooling down, from 2007. In that experiment, healthy adults walked backward downhill on a treadmill for 30 minutes, courting sore muscles and curious stares from fellow gymgoers. Some of the volunteers first walked forward for 10 minutes as a warm-up; others did the same afterward, to cool down. Others didn’t warm up or cool down.
Two days later, the group that had cooled down was every bit as sore as the control group.
Given all of these findings, then, is there any valid reason to cool down?
Yes, says Andrea Fradkin, an associate professor of exercise science at Bloomsburg University in Pennsylvania. “A cool-down has been shown to prevent venous pooling after exercise,” or the buildup of blood in the veins, she says. During prolonged, vigorous exercise, the blood vessels in your legs expand, meaning that more blood moves through them. Stop exercising abruptly, and that blood pools in your lower body, which can lead to dizziness or even fainting.
The condition is easy to combat, though. Just walk for a few minutes at the end of a workout and you’ll maintain normal circulation to the brain, says Ross Tucker, a South African physiologist and a founder of the estimable Web site The Science of Sport. “And that’s not really a cool-down,” as most of us would define the procedure, he says.
Still, if a formal cool-down provides few confirmed physiological benefits, it may have a scientifically squishy, but nevertheless worthwhile psychological effect. “If you’ve done a very hard track session, it’s nice to end with some light jogging,” Dr. Tucker says, just to restore a subjective “sense of normality to your legs.”
A cool-down, in other words, feels nice.
And it’s important to note that “none of the scientific research shows any negative effects due to performing a cool-down,” Dr. Fradkin says.
So, in essence, the available science suggests that whatever you’re doing now at the end of a workout is probably fine.
“My feeling is that” unless future science shows otherwise, “people shouldn’t worry about it,” Dr. Herbert says. “If they like to cool down, then it’s not going to hurt them. But if they don’t feel like it, then they shouldn’t feel a need to do it.”
A version of this article appears in print on 04/30/2013, on page D4 of the NewYork edition with the headline: Skipping the Post-Workout Workout.
Takoma, Washington DC 24 April 2013
One dangerously important fact is missing from this article--venous pooling increases stress on the heart and can be fatal.
If you have a family history of heart disease or other cardiac risk factors, you should always taper down your aerobic exercise with a cool down, and never stop suddenly. That was the lesson we learned the hard way with the death of Jim Fixx, father of "jogging" as we know it, who died during a run while standing at a traffic light.
Keep the major muscles moving lightly to help pump blood till you are out of the aerobic zone.
Share this comment on FacebookShare this comment on Twitter
New York, NY 24 April 2013
It seems like pretty much everything that runners have learned over the years (stretching, cooling down, etc.) is now being disputed by medical science. Makes you question any conventional wisdom regarding athletics.